For patients with stage II or III rectal cancer for whom tumoral downsizing is advantagous or sphincter preservation is desired, what is the preferred preoperative treatment?
Short-course radiotherapy (5 × 5 Gy) alone
Long-course chemoradiotherapy (1.8 Gy/day)
Based on current studies in patients with rectal cancer, the most reliable predictor of survival after undergoing long-course neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy and surgery is:
Pretreatment clinical stage
Degree of response to neoadjuvant treatment
Final pathologic stage (ypTNM)
In patients with metastatic colorectal cancer, what is among the most important predictors for recurrence after resection of liver metastases?
Number of liver metastases
The progression of the primary colorectal cancer
Presence of pulmonary metastases
Achievement of a simultaneous resection rather than a staged resection
What is the primary contributor to the rising incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma?
Hepatitis A infection
Hepatitis B infection
Hepatitis C infection
Metabolic syndrome related to obesity, diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma who are to undergo local ablation for small, solitary, or a limited number of lesions, which of the following is considered the treatment of choice?
Radiofrequency ablation (RFA)
Percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI)
Intra-arterial injection of yttrium-90 microspheres
Biliary tract cancers that arise in the biliary bifurcation are called:
Intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [IHCC]
Extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma [EHCC]
Regarding systemic adjuvant therapy for patients with biliary tract cancers:
Cisplatin + gemcitabine has shown promise in this setting
Systemic 5-fluorouracil for 1 year beyond the period of chemoradiotherapy is a new standard
There is currently no accepted standard adjuvant treatment
None of the above
Data from cohort studies of U.S.
women with pancreatic adenocarcinoma suggest that which of the following risk factors contributes the greatest risk for this disease?
Increasing body mass index
High alcohol intake
History of diabetes
In the CONKO-001 trial, which of the following treatments had a significant benefit in patients with resected pancreatic cancer?
Gemcitabine plus erlotinib
The first randomized trial to demonstrate a meaningful overall survival benefit of second-line therapy for patients with pancreatic cancer was:
The second part of the CONKO 003 trial, which resulted in significantly better outcomes for patients treated with 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid/oxaliplatin, as compared with 5-fluorouracil/folinic acid
The phase III trial of gemcitabine with or without erlotinib
The AVITA trial, which compared gemcitabine/erlotinib + bevacizumab vs.
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The randomized phase II study of gemcitabine plus axitinib vs. gemcitabine alone
Which of the following tumor types seems to be more responsive to chemotherapy?
Deficiency of the DNA repair enzyme, O6-methylguanine DNA methyltransferase (MGMT), appears to be more common in which type of tumor?
Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors
In localized gastric cancer, accepted treatment strategies outside of Japan include:
Neoadjuvant chemoradiation or chemotherapy, then surgery
Perioperative chemotherapy or adjuvant chemoradiation
Key phase III trials reporting a survival advantage for multi-modality therapy in localized gastric cancer are:
CRITICS, CLASSIC, Intergroup CALGB-80101
MAGIC, Intergroup 0116/SWOG-9008, ACTS-GC
ARTIST, ST03, JCOG-0501
Which statement best describes the epidemiologic changes for esophagogastric cancer in Western countries?
There have been no significant changes in the incidence of gastric cancer over the past 35 years
There has been a significant increase the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma over the past 35 years
There has been a significant increase in the incidence of distal gastric cancer over the past 35 years
There has been a significant decrease in the incidence of proximal gastric cancer over the past 35 years
There has been a significant increase in the relative incidence of proximal gastric cancer but a significant decrease in the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinoma over the past 35 years
Which statement about the treatment of metastatic esophagogastric cancer is NOT CORRECT?
So-called doublet or triplet combinations (platinum/fluoropyrimidine or platinum/fluoropyrimidine plus third drug) are widely used
Oxaliplatin is at least as effective as cisplatin
The oral fluoropyrimidine capecitabine is at least as effective as 5-fluorouracil
Irinotecan is more effective and more tolerable than cisplatin
Several targeted drugs are under clinical investigation
Which KIT mutation genotype is associated with the best response to imatinib?
KIT wild type
Which of the following is (are) important prognostic factor(s) for completely resected GISTs?
High mitotic rate
All of the above
In recent analysis of patients with colorectal cancer, the prevalence of PI3K mutations was:
At present, which of the following is the most reliable marker of increased colon cancer risk in patients with inflammatory bowel disease?
Mutations in p53
Mutations in KRAS
Mutations in APC genes
Morphologic identification of dysplasia in mucosal biopsies